開發者以Band of Defenders爲例談遊戲的系統建造

本文原作者: Jakub Dockal 譯者遊戲邦ciel chen

《Band of Defenders》並非一款常規現代化的可合作(coop)第一人稱射擊遊戲(FPS)。也許在你擊殺那些試圖砍殺你並破壞你的保護目標(“基地”)的敵人之前,你都會覺得它是(coop FPS),然而在那之後,你就會發現自己有機會(如果你想勝利的話最好好好利用這個機會)圍繞你的“基礎”建立保護設施。而且同時我們可以確定的是——《Band of Defenders》始終是一款很棒的FPS遊戲,而其中的“構建、建造”部分內容就是它出彩的地方。

Band of Defenders(from gamasutra.com)

Band of Defenders(from gamasutra.com)

平衡,它比想象中更重要!

多虧了這個古人想出的智慧之言——我們後來決定遵循與他們同樣的路徑。我們知道繼《Killing Room之後的下一款遊戲還會是一款FPS——因爲Killing Room實在是太好玩了,它是集結了我們在開發第一款PC遊戲中通過各種失敗得來的許多經驗研製而成的遊戲。但是我們也想要創作一款獨特的、能混合各種我們所愛的遊戲流行元素的遊戲——其中最突出的一個元素就是通過建造基地來抵禦成羣結隊的敵軍以及玩家之間的聯合攻擊。就像《殺戮空間》,以及《又一個殭屍塔防(Yet Another Zombie Defense)》、《幽閉聖地》和《七日殺》這些遊戲都含這類流行遊戲元素。對此,我們得確保我們所構建的建造系統玩起來會很有活力與樂趣。

我們提到這些遊戲不只因爲它們給我們靈感,而且也因爲它們是我們開發道路上的阻礙和絆腳石——我們都知道《幽閉聖地》(對我們來說)塔防元素太重了,我們都瞭解《殺戮空間2》有點太血腥而且人物發展並沒有如我們所望地鋪展開來,我們都明白《又一個殭屍塔防》只有好創意,而我們的執行會做得更好,我們也都覺得《七日殺》有點過度複雜化,太費時了(對於速戰速決的多人遊戲來說)。

建造與升級

通過建造以及升級有用的設備會帶來愉悅感。我們在塔防遊戲、策略遊戲和生存遊戲中都享受這種愉悅感。基地就是家園,你要改變遊戲裏的世界來企及你的需求。而且因爲《Band of Defenders》是關於防禦設施的遊戲,所以要建築路障和炮塔是非常容易的事。

路障

路障會阻礙敵人向你的基地、炮塔以及你控制的角色的進軍。我們想讓玩家建立一些顏值高效果好的防禦工事——事實上這並不容易,而且可以說是目前開發中最困難的一部分,那麼要構建每個路障有多複雜呢?我們剛開始的一兩次並沒有把焦點放對地方,所以我們在構建這些路障時花了很多時間,不過對於最後的做出的結果我們總體還算是滿意的,不過如果以後有時間的話還是希望再改進改進。

玩家會在基地附近預先選定的網格狀位置進行構建(這樣的水平設計比較容易)

玩家會建造出無縫連接型的小規模路障(最大規模只有1米x1米)——除了直線形還可以做成其他形狀(X形、T形和L形)

升級(大部分)路障類型(只准備了五種發行用的具體路障類型)到更高的等級是連續性的——同一個基底的路障在升級時基底不變,只有部分會改變來體現升級。

在做過一些試驗後,我們終於明白該做什麼樣的路障及其方式,因此在創建的每個路障身上不會耗太多時間。

炮塔

對於炮塔我們要解決的問題就不一樣了。我們知道這些炮塔不一定要跟彼此接連,也不一定要跟路障連接——畢竟你也不想做圍牆式炮塔吧。但是我們得考慮炮塔的要做成多大才合適,還要想想炮塔要怎麼在網格建造規格內有限的空間裏轉動炮筒(每個炮塔和路障都只能呆在它們的1X1m宮格或者2mX2m宮格里,所以他們不會和其他結構發生碰撞)。而且要升級一個炮塔不是那麼容易的——不是說隨便在炮塔貼塊鐵皮就讓能讓它看起來更厲害像升級了一樣。那麼我們是如何解決這個問題的?

我們將給予炮塔更多的空間——他們會佔據4個方格(2mX2m),這樣他們的炮筒就有轉動的空間了(這會帶來另一個問題——一些炮塔佔據的空間太多以至於我們得用輪胎水桶來填充這個空間好讓玩家知道敵人是不能通過這個空間的)

升級後的炮塔整個模型會發生變化

我們的圖像設計師嘗試重複利用炮塔的各部分圖像來組成其他更高等級的炮塔,所以在創造新型炮塔時並沒有花費太多的時間。

要知道進步的空間是永無止境的,我們也希望儘可能地在結構上做到進一步多樣化。因此在遊戲裏我們還想在路障/炮塔上增加隨機性物件——讓每個路障都可以在預設的位置上添物件(比如金屬棒、海報、石頭……),這樣,這些混凝土路障搭建成的圍牆看上去就不會那麼單調,卻仍可保持路障牆的整體感,其微小的瑕疵卻讓人感到倍感有趣了。

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Band of Defenders isn’t regular modern coop FPS. It may look like one until you kill first wave of enemies trying to kill you and destroy object you are protecting („base“). But after that, you will have an opportunity (and you better use it if you want to win) to build protection around your „base“. And while we made sure that Band of Defenders is also a great first person shooter, it is this building part that makes it extraordinary

Balance, it’s so much bigger!

Thanks for the words of wisdom from a man who lived long time ago. We somehow decided to follow similar path. We knew that next game after Killing Room will be another FPS – it was just too tempting, using experience gained from many mistakes made during development of our first big PC game. But we also wanted to create game that will be special, mixing popular ideas from games we love – most notably building of a base, defending it against hordes of enemies and cooperation with other players. You know, something between Killing Floor, Yet another zombie defense, Sanctum and 7 days to die. For that, we had to make sure that our building system will be robust and fun to use.

We chose these game not only as our inspiration, but also as our boundaries and stepping stones – we knew that Sanctum is too much tower-defense (for us), we knew that Killing Floor (2) is a little bit too focused on gore and doesn’t provide character development in the way we wanted, we knew that Yet another zombie has only good idea but that we could execute it much better and we knew that 7 days to die is a little bit too complex and time-consuming (for purpose of fast multiplayer game).

Building and upgrading

It brings joy – building and upgrading useful stuff. We like it in tower defense games, strategies and also survival games. Your base is your home, you are changing in-game world to suit your needs. And because Band of Defenders is about defending, it was quite easy to make decision to build barricades and turrets.

Barricades

They serve as obstacles in the way of enemy movement towards your base, your turrets and your character. We wanted to let players create fortification that looks and works well. It wasn’t easy, actually it was the hardest part of development so far. Are we going to build on grid or free like in Fallout 4? Are we going to make seamless walls and if so, how big will be building blocks? Is it better to have monolithic appearance or some imperfections that repeat on each building block? We didn’t hit the nail on the head for the first time, or second time. It took a lot of time but we are quite happy with the result that can be even improved if we happen to have some spare time in the future.
Player will build on grid on predetermined places around his base (not only level design is easier that way)
Player will build small barricades (1x1m max) that seamlessly connect to each other – not only in line but also in various other shapes (X, T and L)

Upgrading (most) barricade types (concrete barricades are one of the 5 types planned for release) to higher level is continuous (see below) – barricades of the same type share one basis and only some parts change/upgrade

In the end, after few experiments, we knew what to do and how to do it and creating each barricade doesn’t take too much time.

Seamless barricade walls

Barricade upgrading

Turrets

With turrets we had to solve different problems. We knew that they don’t have to be connected to each other or to barricades – you don’t want to make wall of turrets. But we had to figure out how big should turret be, how should it rotate it’s barrel in the limited space given by building grid rules (each turret and barricade has to stay in its 1x1m or 2x2m space so they don’t collide with other structures). Also it isn’t so easy to upgrade a turret – it isn’t necessary to just attach a new plate of steel on it to make it look better/upgraded. How did we solve it?

Turrets will have more space – they will occupy 4 grids (2x2m) so their barrel has a room to rotate (it brought other problems – some turrets had too much space around so we had to fill it with tires, barrels etc. to show player that enemies cannot go through that space)

Upgrading will change whole model

Our graphic designer tries to re-use most of the parts in more upgrade levels of turret type so it doesn’t take too much time to create each turret

Upgrading burst turrets – first 3 levels of 9 (this type is one of 7 turret types planned for release)

There is always room to improve and we know that bigger variability in structures would be great. So one of the things that we want to add to the game are random objects on barricades/turrets. Each barricade could be built with object (for example iron rod, poster, stone,…) on one of the predefined positions so wall of concrete barricades wouldn’t be so monolithic but it would still feel as one wall, just with few imperfections that make it more interesting.(source:gamasutra.com  )