從行銷角度談可用於產品層面的用戶留存策略

本文原作者:Pepe Agell 譯者遊戲邦ciel chen

如何正確地守住用戶留存量是非很艱難的。來自Appboy的近期報道表明有超過75%的新用戶在第一天使用應用過後就不再登陸應用了。

我們舉個《精靈寶可夢》的例子:除去所有的炒作和這款遊戲在手遊市場上最初優秀的表現不提,最近的報道都表明這款遊戲在7月份丟失了大概1000萬的日活躍用戶人數——這造成了這款遊戲在用戶留存量上的驟降。

用戶留存量就是衡量遊戲成功的標誌。衆多的用戶留存量意味着爲積累用戶投入的資金正在被充分利用——更多的用戶就意味着應用內購買行爲的概率增加。

而且用戶留存會比用戶獲取更划得來,基本上用戶獲取的成本比用戶留存多六到七倍。

根據Verto Analytics提供的數據分析,Supercell的《衝突部落》和《Boom Beach》自發行起已經過了兩年,然而它們仍保持着39%的第7日用戶留存率。

Boom Beach(from pocketgamer.biz)

Boom Beach(from pocketgamer.biz)

《Boom Beach》發行了兩年以後,仍然有着39%的第七日用戶留存率。

所以獨立遊戲開發者可以沿襲Supercell的哪些方面來提高手遊用戶留存量呢?

去了解玩家需求

一款手遊,一旦它可以在App store上下載,開發者就要開啓分析遊戲的最大檔位,儘可能多地去了解玩家基礎。

“玩家留存最終會以去吸引每個玩家的方式去施行。”《Perchang and Warhammer Quest》的創作人Ben Murch這樣說道,“我們【遊戲行業】經常把遊戲想成一個很廣泛籠統的概念,然而,要做到讓每個玩家願意賞臉留下來玩你的遊戲真的很重要。”

通過遊戲的後臺分析,開發者可以收集到構成遊戲玩家基礎的結構資料,從而更好地根據玩家喜好來做出符合玩家胃口的遊戲更新。不僅如此,這種分析還能幫助開發者辨析遊戲可能出錯的地方並快速地修復漏洞。舉個例子,在GDC的一次著名演講中,《糖果粉碎》的創作人就講述了他們是如何利用分析學來分析哪些關卡太簡單,或者哪些關卡太困難。

King遊戲公司利用分析學來提高《糖果粉碎》這樣遊戲的用戶留存量

Candy Crush Saga(from pocketgamer.biz)

Candy Crush Saga(from pocketgamer.biz)

然後他們根據分析的結果對困難關卡進行調整,確保能在60秒內通關困難關卡的玩家之後得以在一些簡單些的關卡進行放鬆和充電。

由於Apple和Google現在承諾對遊戲更新內容的審批時間在24小時以內,開發者因此可以快速地用遊戲內分析法根據玩家行爲進行調整——這防止了短期挫折所造成的混亂。

多和玩家交流

曾幾何時遊戲都是沒有動態交流的——比如《俄羅斯方塊》還有每個用CD安裝的電腦或者電子遊戲。而如今,大部分遊戲恰恰相反——在它們進行初期發行後,往往存在需要多次迭代的可能性。

因爲玩家希望開發者能支持單款遊戲長時間運作下去,所以手遊都開始以服務爲主要運作原則。這就意味着開發者必須花時間和精力來把服務支持模型作爲遊戲設計的一部分看待。

一個有效的、基於服務的用戶留存策略就是同玩家的有效交流,比如說讓玩家時刻跟上游戲動態就是這樣一種有效交流。

像Facebook、Twitter和Youtube這樣的社交渠道就是開發者可以用來給自己遊戲的粉絲推送遊戲新特色的很好途徑。比如說,Supercell就讓它們信賴的YouTube主播來介紹《皇室戰爭》的新卡——這即讓更廣泛的羣體知道了這個遊戲,同時又將遊戲新內容的信息推送給了玩家。

同時,遊戲內交流也可以被很好地利用從而通過在合適的時間對合適的玩家羣體來發布一些相關信息。

根據Marketing Land網站我們那些向指定用戶羣體(比如說24歲的都市男性)推送提醒的應用開發者能獲取13%的點擊率——這基本上是對應用的全體用戶無差別推送消息所獲點擊率的兩倍,這表明:開發者需要對推送信息進行提煉,讓這些信息更有效地被那些關鍵用戶接收到。

要制定匹配自己遊戲類型的變現策略

最後,開發者要細心考慮它們的盈收(變現)策略:它是否能鼓勵玩家重返遊戲?

儘管大部分遊戲開發者都傾向於應用內購買和手遊廣告的變現策略,Apple 和Google公司卻決定開始激勵使用訂閱模式,這可以讓開發者在服務上保持高效性——這是Tin Man Games的共同創始人Neil Rennison提出的。

《Choices: And The Sun Went Out》使用訂閱模式來使遊戲變現以及留住玩家。

“對於《Choices: And The Sun Went Out》來說,我們決定採取訂閱模式,因爲我們的遊戲主要是以故事爲基礎內容(每週會更新新的內容),所以訂閱模式確保了我們長期的用戶留存量。”

雖然訂閱模式並不是對每個遊戲開發者都適用的,但開發者可以對如何調整盈收模式來匹配他們的用戶基礎做做考慮。

Bethesda遊戲工作室的F2P模擬遊戲《Fallout Shelter》在2015年發行的時候,盈收情況比較緊張,但是它的低成本增強包機制符合其鐵桿遊戲粉絲的快節奏遊戲風格。

對於那些希望通過廣告盈收的遊戲,它們會發現遊戲中途的停頓會讓玩家直接地與支付酬金登廣告的廣告商進行有意義的交互行爲。

所以並不存在能增加手遊用戶留存率的統一適用法——每款遊戲都各有各的不同,每家遊戲公司都會找到各自不同的方法來增加這個關鍵指標。

本文由遊戲邦編譯,轉載請註明來源,或諮詢微信zhengjintiao

Getting retention right is tough. A recent report from Appboy showed that more than 75% of new users fail to return to an app the day after first use.

Take Pokemon GO for example: despite all the hype and initially excellent performance in the mobile games market, recent reports suggest the game has lost 10 million DAUs during July – leading to a dramatic decline in retention.

Retention is paramount for game success. Strong retention numbers means the money spent accumulating users is being put to good use – and more users means increased in-app purchasing opportunities.

What’s more, retention is actually more cost-effective than acquisition, which can cost six to seven times more.

Fortunately, many game developers have taken the retention challenge head-on and succeeded with a focus on game design and retention tactics such as monetisation and effective in-game communication.

According to Verto Analytics, Supercell’s Clash of Clans and Boom Beach were still achieving Day 7 retention rates of 39% – nearly two years after each game had launched.

Boom Beach had Day 7 retention rates as high as 39% two years after launch.

So, how can indie devs follow Supercell’s lead to improve their mobile game’s retention?

Know your players

Once a mobile game is available in an app store, devs should kick their analytics game into high gear to learn as much about the player base as possible.

“Player retention ultimately comes down to appealing to the individual player,” says Ben Murch, creator of Perchang and Warhammer Quest.

“We [the games industry] often think of games in broad, sweeping terms. However, getting individuals to buy into your title on a personal level is the most important thing.”

By implementing back-end analytics, devs can glean the demographic makeup of their game’s player base, making it easier for them to update or support the game to suit the tastes of those players.

Analytics will also help a developer identify where a game might be going wrong and fix it quickly. For example, in a famous talk at GDC, the makers of Candy Crush Saga spoke about how they used analytics to determine when levels were too easy or hard.

King uses analytics to improve retention in its games like Candy Crush Saga.

They then tweaked the difficulty level to ensure that a player who cleared the hard to beat levels in the mid ‘60s was able to relax and recharge with some simpler levels afterwards.

And with Apple and Google now committing to update approval times of less than 24 hours, developers with in-game analytics can rapidly adjust to user behavior – stopping short-term frustration from turning into churn.

Communicate with players

Mobile games used to be static – think Tetris and every PC and console game that was contained in a CD. Most mobile games today, in contrast, have the potential for many iterations after the initial release.

Because devs are expected support a single game for a long time, mobile games have come to operate like services. That means devs must expend time and effort toward supporting the service element of the model as part of the game design.

One effective service-based retention tactic is effective communication, i.e. keeping players up to date with what’s going on in a game.

Social channels like Facebook, Twitter and YouTube can be great places to inform avid players of new features. For example, Supercell allows trusted YouTube influencers to introduce new Clash Royale cards – feeding the broader community and informing players at the same time.

Meanwhile, in-app communications can be used successfully to spread relevant messages by targeting the right players at the right time.

According to Marketing Land, app developers who send push notifications to users segmented by profile (e.g. 24-year-old, urban male) generate an average CTR of 13%.

This is nearly twice as effective as sending a notification to an app’s entire user base, suggesting that developers need to hone in their message to hit key user groups effectively.

Match monetisation to genre

Finally, devs should carefully consider their monetisation strategy: does it encourage players to keep coming back?

While most game developers currently favor in-app purchases or mobile advertising, Apple and Google’s decision to encourage the use of subscription models could help developers with services to retain effectively – according to Neil Rennison, co-founder of Tin Man Games.
Choices: And The Sun Went Out uses the subscription model to monetise and retain players.

“For Choices: And The Sun Went Out, we decided to go for a subscription model,” Rennison explains.

“As our game is mainly story based (with new content delivered weekly), subscription ensures we can retain players over a long period.”

So, while subscription might not be right for every developer out there, developers can think about adjusting monetisation to fit the habits of their userbase.

Bethesda Game Studios’ free-to-play simulation game, Fallout Shelter, might have only monetised briefly when it launched in 2015, but its low-cost booster pack mechanics fit the fast play style of its hardcore fans.

For games looking to monetise with advertisements, finding pauses in play will allow players to meaningfully interact with revenue generating display adverts.

There is no one-size-fits all approach to improving mobile game retention. Every game is different and each company will find different ways to increase this all-important metric.(source:pocketgamer.biz