如何創造你的遊戲項目圖表

作者:Martin Pichlmair

你們中的有些人可能已經熟悉了商業模式圖,這是初創業企業可以使用的一種工具。它就是一張等待着被填滿的紙。擁有計劃的公司會將不同內容填進整齊劃分好的表格中。該圖表的理念便在於它將廣泛包含所有基本內容,但同時它也存在侷限性,即將迫使你在較早時候去做決策。就像你必須填寫收益六,所以你需要在可下載內容,IAP或盒裝產品中做出決定。即使你擁有10種收益來源,你也會意識到自己並不能只是着眼於收益流與團隊或市場營銷渠道便啓動一項業務。商業模式圖的目的是幫助你專注於某些內容並明確範圍。

當使用了商業模式圖,設計了一家假公司並看到了這一過程的作用時,我便決定爲遊戲項目創造相似的工具。這便是人們創造自己第一個專業項目的起點,當然不是針對那些經驗豐富的專家們。這不僅適合獨立開發者也適合AAA級工作室,但它的最初目的卻是去教授那些年輕的專業人士(遊戲邦注:如學生,最初的創業者,初創公司等等)去開始思考他們在某一時候必須做出的決定。該公司是面向遊戲項目而非公司,這是我必須提醒你們的一點。這也是爲何它同樣被稱爲遊戲項目圖的原因。

gameprojectcanvas(from gamasutra)

gameprojectcanvas(from gamasutra)

如何使用遊戲項目圖表

很簡單。你只需要填滿所有表格便可。而當該項目圖被填滿且不存在任何矛盾內容時,你便完成了任務。完成便意味着每一個領域都被填滿並且不需要添加其它內容。不存在矛盾內容則意味着任何領域都不會和其它領域產生矛盾。舉個例子來說吧,如果你使用的技術是CryEngine,但你的收益流卻包含3DS,你便擁有需要解決的矛盾。讓我來解釋每一個單獨的領域吧。

團隊:致力於項目中的人們以及他們所扮演的角色。如果你擁有這些角色請先爲他們命名,明確團隊規模。例如:“John Carmack是圖像程序員。”

主要合作伙伴:發行商,市場營銷代理,信息傳遞者。你必須將所有你將因爲開發與之聯繫或者與遊戲項目存在利害關係的人列在這裏。寫下公司名字就夠了。但如果可以的話也請寫下角色。例如:“Oculus,分銷。”

基本技術:列出所有基本技術,如引擎,聲音引擎,硬件平臺等等。這是一個較小的領域,所以你不能詳細列出所有內容。例如“Unreal Engine。”

價值主張:你的遊戲的主要價值主張是什麼?如果你創造的是一款行走模擬遊戲,這可能是關於沉浸感,逃避主義和故事。如果你在行走模擬內容中添加了槍支,這可能便是關於殘害,多人遊戲和twitch streaming。你應該問問自己用戶能從玩你的遊戲中獲得什麼。例如:“專門的多人遊戲。”

市場營銷渠道:是YouTubers?Twitch Streamers?還是時事通訊?你應該列出任何你能與消費者交流的平臺。即包括Steam Workshop社區和Gamescom。例如:“Twitch Streaming。”

消費者細分:你是否像大多數AAA級產業那樣瞄準了男性硬核玩家或者你是否打算將遊戲傳遞給大衆用戶?當然了你在這裏填寫的內容便代表着你的市場營銷渠道。例如:“9至11歲的少年。”

成本架構:你將如何劃分人事費用和其它成員元素?你需要多大的預算?你可以通過簡單的計算去回答這些問題。例如:“整個項目的成本爲140萬美元。”

時間表:項目何時結束?是否有公共測試環節,什麼時候進行?何時發行遊戲?通常情況下你都需要在最樂觀的計劃基礎上乘以兩倍或三倍時間才能最終制作出遊戲。例如:“2018年3月進行公開測試。”

經費:列出開發遊戲的所有資金來源。這並不是指收益而是你在遊戲發行前需要擁有的資金。如果你寫下Kickstarter,你便需要擁有一個市場營銷渠道,並需要反覆檢查你的目標用戶是否使用了那一平臺。可能的話,你可以爲每個部分都寫下對應的資金數量。例如:“IndieFund5萬至8萬美元。”

收益流:你是否出售遊戲還是IAP?你是否提供訂閱服務?像毛絨玩具和收集品也可以寫在這裏。雖然大多數情況下這些內容都很好填寫,但這同時也能夠教你去尋找其它收益流。如果你創造了一個銷售預測,你便可以添加最糟糕的情況,預期的情況和最佳情況。例如:“PSN:3萬美元–12萬美元–30萬美元。”

你可以基於各種順序去填寫這一表格,但不管怎樣它們之間都是存在聯繫的。爲了接觸到特定消費羣體,你會發現一些市場營銷渠道比其它更合適。爲了在特定平臺發行遊戲,你便需要選擇適當的基礎技術。所以我的建議便是你可以從那些已經明確的項目元素開始。可能是技術或預算。也可能是目標平臺或消費者細分。當你填寫了所有你已經知道的內容後你還需要填寫所有的其它內容,從而確保整份表格的完整與一致。

本文爲遊戲邦/gamerboom.com編譯,拒絕任何不保留版權的轉發,如需轉載請聯繫:遊戲邦

The Game Project Canvas – A Project Management Tool

by Martin Pichlmair

Some of you might be familiar with the Business Model Canvas, a tool from the lean toolset for startups. The tool presents itself as a sheet of paper ready to be filled out. Different aspects of the planned company are to be filled into neatly labelled boxes. The idea of the canvas is that it covers all the bases very broadly – and given its constraints it also forces you to make decisions early in the process. You have to fill in revenue streams, for example, forcing you to make a decision between downloadable, IAP or boxed product. Even if you fit in ten sources of revenue you quickly realize that you can not kickstart a business that complex just by looking at the mismatch between your revenue streams and e.g. your team or your marketing channels. The goal of the Business Model Canvas is to help you focus and scope. And to help you to start thinking about every piece of the puzzle that a company is.

After working with the Business Model Canvas in a workshop, designing a fake company, and seeing the qualities of the process I decided to create a similar tool for game projects. It’s meant as a starting point for people doing their first professional project and not for seasoned experts. It might be suitable for indies as well as AAA studios but its original intention is to help inteaching young professionals – students, first time entrepreneurs, startups – in starting to think about the decisions they will have to make at some point. The tool is for game projects and not for companies, mind you. That’s why it’s called the Game Project Canvas.

How to work with the Game Project Canvas

It’s very simple. Just fill out all the boxes. You’re done when the canvas is complete and without any contradictions. Complete means that every field is filled out and that there is nothing to add to any field. Without contradictions means that no field contradicts another field. If your base technology, for example, is the CryEngine, but your revenue stream includes the 3DS you have a contradiction there. Let me explain every individual field.

Team: The people working on the project and what roles they will take on. Name names if you have them, define group sizes if your team is big. Example: “John Carmack, Graphics Programming”

Key Partners: Publishers, marketing agents, gatekeepers. Everyone with whom you stay in touch about the development, or who has a stake in the game project should be listed here. Company names are sufficient. Do not forget to list the role, if relevant. Example: “Oculus, Distribution”

Base Technologies: List all base technologies such as the engine, sound engine, hardware platforms and so on. This is a small field, so you can’t list every library. Example: “Unreal Engine”

Value Propositions: What are the main value propositions of your game? If you make an arty walking simulator this might be immersion, escapism, and the story. If you add guns to the walking simulator, this might be mayhem, multiplayer, and ease of twitch-streaming. Ask yourself what the user gets out of playing your game. Example: “Ad-hoc multiplayer”

Marketing Channels: YouTubers? Twitch-Streamers? Newsletters? List every single way of getting in touch with your customers. This includes the Steam Workshop community and Gamescom, if those are places you go to. Example: “Twitch Streaming”

Customer Segments: Are you targetting white male core gamers like most of the AAA industry or do you deliver a game for mass audiences? Of course what you fill out here has implications on the marketing channels. Example: “Teens 9-11″

Cost Structure: How do you split your costs between personnel costs and other cost factors? How big a budget do you need? Answer these questions by making rough calculations. Example: “$1.4M Overall Project Costs”

Milestones: When does the project end? Is there a public beta and when? When do you launch? As usual, take your optimistic plan and double or triple the time you think it takes to get the game out. Example: “March 2018, Open Beta”

Funding: List all sources of funding covering the development of the game. This is not the revenue but the money you burn before shipping. If you list Kickstarter, you have a marketing channel, too, and should double-check if your target audience is actually using that platform. If possible, add the amount of funding for each party. Example: “$50k-$80k IndieFund”

Revenue Streams: Do you sell the game or IAP? Do you offer subscriptions? Plush toys and collectibles also go in here. While in most cases, this is a pretty straight-forward box to fill out, the idea is that it also teaches you to be on the lookout for additional revenue streams. If you have made a sales projection, add the worst case, expected case, and best case. Example: “PSN, $30k-$120k-$300k”

While the boxes can be filled out in any order, there are connections between them. In order to reach a certain customer segment, some marketing channels are better suited than others. To publish on a specific platform, the right base technology has to be picked. My advice is therefor to start with those aspects of the project that are already defined. That might be a technology or the budget. Or it is the target platform and the customer segment that comes with it. After filling out everything you already know about the project, all other fields have to be filled out so that they are complete and do not contradict anything else. Go forth and write into boxes!(source:gamasutra)

http://www.gamasutra.com/blogs/MartinPichlmair/20161201/286677/The_Game_Project_Canvas__A_Project_Management_Tool.php